Pico-CapTouch-ePaper-2.9

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Pico-CapTouch-ePaper-2.9
Pico-CapTouch-ePaper-2.9

2.9inch EPD Module for Raspberry Pi Pico,
296 × 128, Black / White, SPI
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Overview

2.9inch EPD (Electronic Paper Display) Module For Raspberry Pi Pico, 296 × 128 Pixels, Black / White, SPI Interface.

Specification

  • Dimension: 2.9inch
  • Outline dimensions (raw panel): 79.0mm × 36.7mm × 1.05mm
  • Outline dimension(with driver board): 82.0mm × 38.0mm
  • Display size: 66.89mm × 29.05mm
  • Operating voltage: 3.3V/5V
  • Interface: SPI
  • Dot pitch: 0.227 × 0.226
  • Resolution: 296 × 128 pixels
  • Display color: Black, white
  • Greyscale: 2
  • Partial refresh time: 0.3s
  • full refresh time: 2s
  • Refresh power: 26.4mW (typ.)
  • Standby current: <0.01uA (almost none)
  • 【Note】
    • Refresh time: The refresh time is the experimental results, the actual refresh time will have errors, and the actual effect shall prevail. There will be a flickering effect during the global refresh process, this is a normal phenomenon.
    • Power consumption: The power consumption data is the experimental results. The actual power consumption will have a certain error due to the existence of the driver board and the actual use situation. The actual effect shall prevail.

SPI Communication Timing

1.54inch-e-paper-manual-1.png

Since the ink screen only needs to be displayed, the data cable (MISO) sent from the machine and received by the host is hidden here.

  • CS: Slave chip select, when CS is low, the chip is enabled.
  • DC: data/command control pin, write command when DC=0; write data when DC=1.
  • SCLK: SPI communication clock.
  • SDIN: SPI communication master sends, the slave receives.
  • Timing: CPHL=0, CPOL=0 (SPI0).

【Remarks】For specific information about SPI, you can search for information online.

Working Protocol

This product is an E-paper device adopting the image display technology of Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Display, MED. The initial approach is to create tiny spheres, in which the charged color pigments are suspended in the transparent oil and would move depending on the electronic charge. The E-paper screen display patterns by reflecting the ambient light, so it has no background light requirement. (Note that the e-Paper cannot support updating directly under sunlight).

How to define pixels

In a monochrome picture we define the pixels, 0 is black and 1 is white.
White:□: Bit 1
Black:■:Bit 0

  • The dot in the figure is called a pixel. As we know, 1 and 0 are used to define the color, therefore we can use one bit to define the color of one pixel and 1 byte = 8pixels.
  • For example, If we set the first 8 pixels to black and the last 8 pixels to white, we show it by codes, they will be 16-bit as below:

E-paper hardware work 1.png
For the computer, the data is saved in MSB format:
E-paper hardware work 2.png
So we can use two bytes for 16 pixels.

Precautions

  1. For E-paper displays that support partial refresh, please note that you cannot refresh them with the partial refresh mode all the time. After refreshing partially several times, you need to fully refresh EPD once. Otherwise, the display effect will be abnormal, which cannot be repaired!
  2. It is a normal phenomenon that the three-color EPD will have a certain color difference in different batches. Hence, It is recommended to use the program to clear all the pictures on the EPD and store it facing up. Please clear the screen several times before powering on.
  3. Note that the screen cannot be powered on for a long time. When the screen is not refreshed, please set the screen to sleep mode or power off it. Otherwise, the screen will remain in a high voltage state for a long time, which will damage the e-Paper and cannot be repaired!
  4. When using the e-Paper display, it is recommended that the refresh interval be at least 180s, and refresh at least once every 24 hours. If the e-Paper is not used for a long time, you should use the program to clear the screen before storing it. (Refer to the datasheet for specific storage environment requirements.)
  5. After the screen enters sleep mode, the sent image data will be ignored, and it can be refreshed normally only after initializing again.
  6. Control the 0x3C or 0x50 (refer to the datasheet for details) register to adjust the border color. In the demo, you can adjust the Border Waveform Control register or VCOM AND DATA INTERVAL SETTING to set the border.
  7. If you find that the created image data is displayed incorrectly on the screen, it is recommended to check whether the image size setting is correct, change the width and height settings of the image and try again.
  8. The working voltage of the e-Paper display is 3.3V. If you buy the raw panel and you need to add a level convert circuit for compatibility with 5V voltage. The new version of the driver board (V2.1 and subsequent versions) has added a level processing circuit, which can support both 3.3V and 5V. The old version only supports a 3.3V working environment. You can confirm the version before using it. (The one with the 20-pin chip on the PCB is generally the new version.)
  9. The FPC cable of the screen is relatively fragile, pay attention to bending the cable along the horizontal direction of the screen when using it, and do not bend the cable along the vertical direction of the screen.
  10. The screen of e-Paper is relatively fragile, please try to avoid dropping, bumping, and pressing hard.
  11. We recommend that customers use the sample program provided by us to test with the corresponding development board.

RPi Pico

Hardware connection

Please take care of the direction when connecting Pico. A logo of the USB port is printed to indicate the directory, you can also check the pins.
If you want to connect the board by an 8-pin cable, you can refer to the table below

e-Paper Pico Description
VCC VSYS Power input
GND GND GNd
DIN GP11 MOSI pin of SPI interface, data transmitted from Master to Slave.
CLK GP10 SCK pin of SPI interface, clock input
CS GP9 Chip select pin of SPI interface, Low Active
DC GP8 Data/Command control pin (High: Data; Low: Command)
RST GP12 Reset pin, low active
BUSY GP13 Busy pin
TRST GP16 Reset pin of touch panel
INT GP17 Interrupt pin of Touch panel
SDA GP6 I2C data pin of touch panel
SCL GP7 I2C clock pin of touch panel

You can just attach the board to Pico and take care of the direction according to the USB port.
Pico-CapTouch-ePaper-2.9-4.jpg

Setup Environment

You can refer to the guides of Raspberry Pi: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/pico/getting-started/

Download Demo codes

Open a terminal of Pi and run the following command:

cd ~
wget https://www.waveshare.com/w/upload/4/43/Pico_ePaper_CapTouch.zip
unzip Pico_ePaper_CapTouch.zip -d Pico_ePaper_CapTouch
cd ~/Pico_ePaper_CapTouch

You can also clone the codes from githu

cd ~
git clone https://github.com/waveshare/Pico_CapTouch_ePaper
cd ~/Pico_CapTouch_ePaper

About the examples

The guides are based on Raspberry Pi.

C codes

Build the project:

cd ~/Pico_CapTouch_ePaper/c

Create a build folder and add the SDK. ../../pico-sdk is the default path of the SDK, if you save the SDK to other directories, please change it to the actual path.

mkdir build
cd build
export PICO_SDK_PATH=../../pico-sdk

Run cmake command to generate a Makefile file.

cmake ..

Run the command make to compile the codes.

make -j6

Python codes

  • Hold the BOOTSEL button of the Pico board, then connect the Pico board to Raspberry Pi or PC by Micro USB cable. And the Pico board will be recognized as a portable drive (RPI-RP2)
  • Copy the rp2-pico-20210418-v1.15.uf2 file from the python directory to the portable drive (RPI-RP2)
  • Update Thonny IDE if it doesn't support Pico
sudo apt upgrade thonny
  • Open the Thonny IDE and choose Tools -> Options... -> Interpreter, and set the microPython and ttyACM0 port
  • Open the Pico_CapTouch_ePaper-xxx.py file and run it.

Code Analysis

C codes

Bottom Hardware Interface

We package the hardware layer for easily porting to the different hardware platforms.
DEV_Config.c(.h) in the directory:Pico_ePaper_Code\c\lib\Config

  • Data type:
#define UBYTE   uint8_t
#define UWORD   uint16_t
#define UDOUBLE uint32_t
  • Module initialize and exit:
void DEV_Module_Init(void);
void DEV_Module_Exit(void);
Note:
1.The functions above are used to initialize the display or exit handle.
  • GPIO Write/Read:
void DEV_Digital_Write(UWORD Pin, UBYTE Value);
UBYTE DEV_Digital_Read(UWORD Pin);
  • SPI transmit data
void DEV_SPI_WriteByte(UBYTE Value);

EPD driver

The driver codes of EPD is saved in the directory: Pico_ePaper_Code\c\lib\e-Paper
Open the .h header file, you can check all the functions defined.

  • Initialize e-Paper, this function is always used at the beginning and after waking up the display.
//2.13inch e-Paper、2.13inch e-Paper  V2、2.13inch e-Paper (D)、2.9inch e-Paper、2.9inch e-Paper (D)
void EPD_xxx_Init(UBYTE Mode); // Mode = 0 fully update, Mode = 1 partial update
//Other types
void EPD_xxx_Init(void);

xxx should be changed by the type of e-Paper, For example, if you use 2.13inch e-Paper (D), to fully update, ti should be EPD_2IN13D_Init(0) and EPD_2IN13D_Init(1) for partial update;

  • Clear: this function is used to clear the display to white.
void EPD_xxx_Clear(void); 

xxx should be changed by the type of e-Paper, For example, if you use a 2.9inch e-Paper (D), it should be EPD_2IN9D_Clear();

  • Send the image data (one frame) to EPD and display
//Bicolor version
void EPD_xxx_Display(UBYTE *Image);
//Tricolor version
void EPD_xxx_Display(const UBYTE *blackimage, const UBYTE *ryimage);

There are several types which are different from others

//Paritial update for 2.13inch e-paper (D)、2.9inch e-paper (D)
void EPD_2IN13D_DisplayPart(UBYTE *Image);
void EPD_2IN9D_DisplayPart(UBYTE *Image);
//For 2.13inch e-paper V2, you need to first useEPD_xxx_DisplayPartBaseImage to display a static background and then partial update by the function EPD_xxx_DisplayPart()
void EPD_2IN13_V2_DisplayPart(UBYTE *Image);
void EPD_2IN13_V2_DisplayPartBaseImage(UBYTE *Image);
  • Enter sleep mode
void EPD_xxx_Sleep(void);

Note, You should only hardware reset or use initialize function to wake up e-Paper from sleep mode
xxx is the type of e-Paper, for example, if you use 2.13inch e-Paper D, it should be EPD_2IN13D_Sleep();

Touch Drivers

The driver codes for Touch panel is saved in the path: c\lib\Driver
Open the .h files you can get the following commands

  • Reset the touch controller
void ICNT_Reset(void);
  • Touch-Write registers
void ICNT_Write(UWORD Reg, char *Data, UBYTE len);
  • Touch-Read registers
void ICNT_Read(UWORD Reg, char *Data, UBYTE len);
  • Touch-Read version information
void ICNT_ReadVersion(void);
  • Touch-Read coordination data and save it to structure
UBYTE ICNT_Scan(void);
  • Touch-Intialize chip
void ICNT_Init(void);

Application Programming Interface

We provide basic GUI functions for testing, like draw point, line, string, and so on. The GUI function can be found in the directory: RaspberryPi_JetsonNano\c\lib\GUI\GUI_Paint.c(.h)
E-paper Driver HAT GUI.png
The fonts used can be found in directory: RaspberryPi_JetsonNano\c\lib\Fonts
E-paper Driver HAT Fonts.png

  • Create a new image, you can set the image name, width, height, rotate angle and color.
void Paint_NewImage(UBYTE *image, UWORD Width, UWORD Height, UWORD Rotate, UWORD Color)
Parameters:
 	image : Name of the image buffer, this is a pointer;
 	Width : Width of the image;
 	Height: Height of the image;
 	Rotate: Rotate angle of the Image;
 	Color : The initial color of the image;
  • Select image buffer: You can create multiple image buffers at the same time and select the certain one and drawing by this function.
void Paint_SelectImage(UBYTE *image)
Parameters:
 	image: The name of the image buffer, this is a pointer;
  • Rotate image: You need to set the rotate angle of the image, this function should be used after Paint_SelectImage(). The angle can 0, 90, 180, 270
void Paint_SetRotate(UWORD Rotate)
Parameters:
 	Rotate: Rotate angle of the image, the parameter can be ROTATE_0, ROTATE_90, ROTATE_180, ROTATE_270.
【Note】Afer rotating, the place of the first pixel is different, we take 1.54inch e-paper as example
SPI-epaper-C-0.png SPI-epaper-C-90.png SPI-epaper-C-180.pngSPI-epaper-C-270.png
  • Image mirror: This function is used to set the image mirror.
void Paint_SetMirroring(UBYTE mirror)
Parameters:
 	mirror: Mirror type if the image, the parameter can be MIRROR_NONE、MIRROR_HORIZONTAL、MIRROR_VERTICAL、MIRROR_ORIGIN.
  • Set the position and color of pixels: This is the basic function of GUI, it is used to set the position and color of a pixel in the buffer.
void Paint_SetPixel(UWORD Xpoint, UWORD Ypoint, UWORD Color)
Parameters:
 	Xpoint: The X-axis value of the point in the image buffer
 	Ypoint: The Y-axis value of the point in the image buffer
 	Color : The color of the point
  • Clear display: To set the color of the image, this function always be used to clear the display.
void Paint_Clear(UWORD Color)
Parameters:
 	Color: The color of the image
  • Color of the windows: This function is used to set the color of windows, it always used for updating partial areas like displaying a clock.
void Paint_ClearWindows(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, UWORD Xend, UWORD Yend, UWORD Color)
Parameters:
 	Xpoint: The X-axis value of the start point in the image buffer
 	Ypoint: The Y-axis value of the start point in the image buffer
 	Xend: The X-axis value of the end point in the image buffer
 	Yend: The Y-axis value of the end point in the image buffer
 	Color: The color of the windows
  • Draw point: Draw a point at the position (Xpoint, Ypoint) of image buffer, you can configure the color, size, and the style.
void Paint_DrawPoint(UWORD Xpoint, UWORD Ypoint, UWORD Color, DOT_PIXEL Dot_Pixel, DOT_STYLE Dot_Style)
Parameters:
 	Xpoint: X-axis value of the point.
 	Ypoint: Y-axis value of the point.
 	Color: Color of the point
 	Dot_Pixel: Size of the point, 8 sizes are available.
 	 	 typedef enum {
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_1X1  = 1,	// 1 x 1
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_2X2  , 		// 2 X 2
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_3X3  , 	 	// 3 X 3
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_4X4  , 	 	// 4 X 4
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_5X5  , 		// 5 X 5
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_6X6  , 		// 6 X 6
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_7X7  , 		// 7 X 7
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_8X8  , 		// 8 X 8
 	 	} DOT_PIXEL;
 	Dot_Style: Style of the point, it define the extednded mode of the point.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	   DOT_FILL_AROUND  = 1,		
 	 	   DOT_FILL_RIGHTUP,
 	 	} DOT_STYLE;
  • Draw line: Draw a lin from (Xstart, Ystart) to (Xend, Yend) in image buffer, you can configure the color, width and the style.
void Paint_DrawLine(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, UWORD Xend, UWORD Yend, UWORD Color, LINE_STYLE Line_Style , LINE_STYLE Line_Style)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of the line
 	Ystart: Ystart of the line
 	Xend: Xend of the line
 	Yend: Yend of the line
 	Color: Color of the line
 	Line_width: Width of the line, 8 sizes are available.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_1X1  = 1,	// 1 x 1
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_2X2  , 		// 2 X 2
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_3X3  ,		// 3 X 3
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_4X4  ,		// 4 X 4
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_5X5  , 		// 5 X 5
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_6X6  , 		// 6 X 6
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_7X7  , 		// 7 X 7
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_8X8  , 		// 8 X 8
 	 	} DOT_PIXEL;
 	 Line_Style: Style of the line, Solid or Dotted.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	 	 LINE_STYLE_SOLID = 0,
 	 	 	 LINE_STYLE_DOTTED,
 	 	} LINE_STYLE;
  • Draw rectangle: Draw a rectangle from (Xstart, Ystart) to (Xend, Yend) , you can configure the color, width, and style.
void Paint_DrawRectangle(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, UWORD Xend, UWORD Yend, UWORD Color, DOT_PIXEL Line_width, DRAW_FILL Draw_Fill)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of the rectangle.
 	Ystart: Ystart of the rectangle.
 	Xend: Xend of the rectangle.
 	Yend: Yend of the rectangle.
 	Color: Color of the rectangle
 	Line_width: The width of the edges. 8 sizes are available.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_1X1  = 1,	// 1 x 1
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_2X2  , 		// 2 X 2
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_3X3  ,		// 3 X 3
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_4X4  ,		// 4 X 4
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_5X5  , 		// 5 X 5
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_6X6  , 		// 6 X 6
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_7X7  , 		// 7 X 7
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_8X8  , 		// 8 X 8
 	 	} DOT_PIXEL;
 	Draw_Fill: Style of the rectangle, empty or filled.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	 	 DRAW_FILL_EMPTY = 0,
 	 	 	 DRAW_FILL_FULL,
 	 	} DRAW_FILL;
  • Draw circle: Draw a circle in image buffer, use (X_Center Y_Center) as center and Radius as radius. You can configure the color, width of line and the style of circle.
void Paint_DrawCircle(UWORD X_Center, UWORD Y_Center, UWORD Radius, UWORD Color, DOT_PIXEL Line_width, DRAW_FILL Draw_Fill)
Parameters:
 	X_Center: X-axis of center
 	Y_Center: Y-axis of center
 	Radius:Radius of circle
 	Color: Color of the circle
 	Line_width: The width of arc, 8 sizes are available.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_1X1  = 1,	// 1 x 1
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_2X2  , 		// 2 X 2
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_3X3  ,		// 3 X 3
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_4X4  ,		// 4 X 4
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_5X5  , 		// 5 X 5
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_6X6  , 		// 6 X 6
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_7X7  , 		// 7 X 7
 	 	 	 DOT_PIXEL_8X8  , 		// 8 X 8
 	 	} DOT_PIXEL;
 	Draw_Fill: Style of the circle: empty or filled.
 	 	typedef enum {
 	 	 	 DRAW_FILL_EMPTY = 0,
 	 	 	 DRAW_FILL_FULL,
 	 	} DRAW_FILL;
  • Show Ascii character: Show a characeter in (Xstart, Ystart) position, you can configure the font, foreground and the background.
void Paint_DrawChar(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, const char Ascii_Char, sFONT* Font, UWORD Color_Foreground, UWORD Color_Background)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of the character
 	Ystart: Ystart of the character
 	Ascii_Char:Ascii char
 	Font:  five fonts are avaialble:
 	 	font8:5*8
 	 	font12:7*12
 	 	font16:11*16
 	 	font20:14*20
 	 	font24:17*24
 	Color_Foreground: foreground color
 	Color_Background: background color
  • Draw string: Draw string at (Xstart Ystart) , you can configure the fonts, foreground and the background
void Paint_DrawString_EN(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, const char * pString, sFONT* Font, UWORD Color_Foreground, UWORD Color_Background)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of the string
 	Ystart: Ystart of the string
 	pString:String
 	Font: five fonts are available:
 	 	font8:5*8
 	 	font12:7*12
 	 	font16:11*16
 	 	font20:14*20
 	 	font24:17*24
 	Color_Foreground: foreground color
 	Color_Background: background color
  • Draw Chiness string: Draw Chinese string at (Xstart Ystart) of image buffer. You can configure fonts (GB2312), foreground and the background.
void Paint_DrawString_CN(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, const char * pString, cFONT* font, UWORD Color_Foreground, UWORD Color_Background)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of string
 	Ystart: Ystart of string
 	pString:string
 	Font: GB2312 fonts, two fonts are available  
 	 	font12CN:ascii 11*21,Chinese 16*21
 	 	font24CN:ascii 24*41,Chinese 32*41
 	Color_Foreground: Foreground color
 	Color_Background: Background color
  • Draw number: Draw numbers at (Xstart Ystart) of image buffer. You can select font, foreground and the background.
void Paint_DrawNum(UWORD Xpoint, UWORD Ypoint, int32_t Nummber, sFONT* Font, UWORD Color_Foreground, UWORD Color_Background)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of numbers
 	Ystart: Ystart of numbers
 	Nummber:numbers displayed. It support int type and 2147483647 are the maximum supported
 	Font: Ascii fonts, five fonts are available:
 	 	font8:5*8
 	 	font12:7*12
 	 	font16:11*16
 	 	font20:14*20
 	 	font24:17*24
 	Color_Foreground: foreground
 	Color_Background: background
  • Display time: Display time at (Xstart Ystart) of image buffer, you can configure fonts, foreground, and background.
This function is used for partial update. Note that some of the e-Paper doesn't support partial update and you cannot use partial update all the time,which will cost ghots problem and destroy the display.
void Paint_DrawTime(UWORD Xstart, UWORD Ystart, PAINT_TIME *pTime, sFONT* Font, UWORD Color_Background, UWORD Color_Foreground)
Parameters:
 	Xstart: Xstart of time
 	Ystart: Ystart of time
 	pTime:Structure of time
 	Font: Ascii font, five fonts are avaialble
 	 	font8:5*8
 	 	font12:7*12
 	 	font16:11*16
 	 	font20:14*20
 	 	font24:17*24
 	Color_Foreground: foreground
 	Color_Background: background

Support

If you require technical support, please go to the Support page and open a ticket.