6inch HD e-Paper HAT

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6inch HD e-Paper raw Panel
6inch-HD-e-Paper-1.jpg

1448×1072 high definition, 6inch E-Ink raw display
6inch HD e-paper HAT
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-1.jpg

1448×1072 high definition, 6inch E-Ink display HAT for Raspberry Pi
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Primary Attribute
Category: OLEDs / LCDs, e-Paper
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Brand: Waveshare
Website
English: Waveshare website
Chinese: 中文网站
Onboard Interfaces
I2C I80 SPI USB
Related Products

Note

6inch e-Paper is big size screen, the glass panel and FPC is fragile, please be careful when use it for developing. we recommend you to reinforce the FPC with scotch tape when developing. Please connect all the cables before powering the device, the device cannot support hot-plug.

There are two version, one is raw panel and another is HAT version. Driver board (IT8951) is required for raw panel, if you are the first time to buy this e-paper, recommend you to choose HAT version which come with the driver board.

User Guide

Introduction

1448×1072 high definition, 6inch E-Ink raw display, black/white, 16 grayscale. The PCB (HAT version) is designed for Raspberry Pi

Features

  • No backlight, keeps displaying last content for a long time even when power down
  • Low power consumption, basically power is only required for refreshing

Specification

  • Operating voltage: 5V
  • Interface: parallel port
  • Outline dimension: 138.4mm × 101.8mm × 1.01mm
  • Display size: 122.4mm × 90.6mm
  • Dot pitch: 0.0845mm × 0.0845mm
  • Resolution: 1448 × 1072
  • Display color: black, white
  • Gray scale: 2-16 (1-4 bit)
  • Full refresh time: <1s
  • Viewing angle: >170°

Working with Windows PC (USB)

  • Connect the e-Paper to driver board
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-1.jpg
  • Connect the driver board to PC by USB cable
  • Download and run the E-LINK-TCON-DEMO software, you can download the software from #Resouces
  • Click connect
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-02.jpg
  • Check "AutoSet" option, click "Open File" to select picture, clock "OK" to confirm.
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-03.jpg
  • Click Display to update the e-Papre
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-04.jpg

Working with Raspberry Pi (SPI)

  • Hardware connection
You should add the IT8951 Driver HAT on Raspberry Pi, communicating via SPI interface.
6inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-06.jpg
You can also connecting by wires
Connect to Raspberry Pi via SPI
IT8951 Driver HAT Raspberry Pi (BCM) Description'
5V 5V 5V power input
GND GND Ground
MISO P9 MISO Pin of SPI
MOSI P10 MOSI Pin of SPI
SCK P11 SCK Pin of SPI
CS P8 Chip selection of SPI (Low active)
RST P17 Reset pin (Low active)
HRDY P24 Busy stats pin (Low when busy)
  • Set the DIP switch to SPI mode
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-05.png
  • Open terminal of Raspberry Pi, and install bcm2835 libraries
wget http://www.airspayce.com/mikem/bcm2835/bcm2835-1.62.tar.gz
tar zxvf bcm2835-1.62.tar.gz
cd bcm2835-1.62
./configure
make
sudo make check
sudo make install
  • Enable SPI interface
sudo raspi-config

Choose Interfacing Options ->SPI->Yes

  • Download demo codes and compile it
git clone https://github.com/waveshare/IT8951-ePaper.git
cd IT8951-ePaper
make
  • Check the VCOM data accodirng to the FPC of the e-Paper
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-06.png
  • Run the demo codes, the VCOM should be added
sudo ./epd -2.51

Working with STM32 (SPI or I80)

  • Choose interface
    • We recommend you to use SPI interface, the pins of SPI interface are less and easy to use
    • If the speed of SPI interface is slow for you, you can choose I80 interface which is fast, however, too much pins
  • Choose MCU
Because IT8951 requires a big RAM for data, some of the STM32 boards don't have enought RAM without external SDRAM. Here we use Waveshare Open429I which has IS42S16499J (64-MBIT) SDAM on board.

SPI interface

IT8951 Driver HAT STM32 Description'
5V 5V 5V power input
GND GND Ground
MISO PE13 MISO Pin of SPI
MOSI PE14 MOSI Pin of SPI
SCK PE12 SCK Pin of SPI
CS PE11 Chip selection of SPI (Low active)
RST PC5 Reset pin (Low active)
HRDY PA7 Busy stats pin (Low when busy)
  • Set the switch to SPI mode
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-05.png
Unzip the deo codes and open the project by Keil. The path o the code is Open429I-C-6-IT8951-Demo\Project\6-IT8951\MDK-ARM\Project.uvproj.
Compile project, modify IT8951.h file, enable SPI interface, then compile again and progam it to STM32 board
9.7inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-15.jpg

I80 interface

  • Connect e-Paper
IT8951 Driver HAT STM32 Description'
DBUS0~DBUS15 PB0~PB15 Data pins
HWE PC1 Write enable (Low active)
D/C PC7 Data/Command(Low for command)
CSEL PC6 Chip select enable (Low active)
HRD PC3 Read enable (Low active)
RST PC0 Reset pin (Low active)
PA7 Busy stats pin (Low when busy)
GND GND Ground
VCC 5V 5V power input
  • Set the switch to I80
9.7inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-17.jpg

|}

  • You can check the debug information via UART interface
6inch-HD-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-07.jpg

=Make image arrays

For easily porting and using, we didn't use file system in the STM32 code. The image showed is saved as arrays. Here show you how to make the image arrays.

  • You should firstly make an BMP file, the resolution of the e-Paper is 1448*1072, you had better resize your picture accoridng to the resolution (less or equal to)
6inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-09.jpg6inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-10.jpg
  • Click File->Save As...-> Choose type "C" butmap file(*.c) -> input the file name and save
  • Select 8 bit per pixel and OK to get the .c file
9.7inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-21.jpg
  • Add the .c file to project and delect unuse information
/*********************************************************************
*                SEGGER Microcontroller GmbH & Co. KG                *
*        Solutions for real time microcontroller applications        *
*                           www.segger.com                           *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
* C-file generated by                                                *
*                                                                    *
*        Bitmap Converter for emWin V5.22.                           *
*        Compiled Jul  4 2013, 12:18:24                              *
*        (c) 1998 - 2013 Segger Microcontroller GmbH && Co. KG       *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
* Source file: zoo_800_600                                           *
* Dimensions:  800 * 600                                             *
* NumColors:   256                                                   *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*/
 
#include <stdlib.h>
 
#include "GUI.h"
 
#ifndef GUI_CONST_STORAGE
  #define GUI_CONST_STORAGE const
#endif
 
extern GUI_CONST_STORAGE GUI_BITMAP bmzoo_800_600;
 
/*********************************************************************
*
*       Palette
*
*  Description
*    The following are the entries of the palette table.
*    The entries are stored as a 32-bit values of which 24 bits are
*    actually used according to the following bit mask: 0xBBGGRR
*
*    The lower   8 bits represent the Red   component.
*    The middle  8 bits represent the Green component.
*    The highest 8 bits represent the Blue  component.
*/
static GUI_CONST_STORAGE GUI_COLOR _Colorszoo_800_600[] = {
  0x000000, 0x010101, 0x020202, 0x030303,
  0x040404, 0x050505, 0x060606, 0x070707,
  0x080808, 0x090909, 0x0A0A0A, 0x0B0B0B,
  0x0C0C0C, 0x0D0D0D, 0x0E0E0E, 0x0F0F0F,
  0x101010, 0x111111, 0x121212, 0x131313,
  0x141414, 0x151515, 0x161616, 0x171717,
  0x181818, 0x191919, 0x1A1A1A, 0x1B1B1B,
  0x1C1C1C, 0x1D1D1D, 0x1E1E1E, 0x1F1F1F,
  0x202020, 0x212121, 0x222222, 0x232323,
  0x242424, 0x252525, 0x262626, 0x272727,
  0x282828, 0x292929, 0x2A2A2A, 0x2B2B2B,
  0x2C2C2C, 0x2D2D2D, 0x2E2E2E, 0x2F2F2F,
  0x303030, 0x313131, 0x323232, 0x333333,
  0x343434, 0x353535, 0x363636, 0x373737,
  0x383838, 0x393939, 0x3A3A3A, 0x3B3B3B,
  0x3C3C3C, 0x3D3D3D, 0x3E3E3E, 0x3F3F3F,
  0x404040, 0x414141, 0x424242, 0x434343,
  0x444444, 0x454545, 0x464646, 0x474747,
  0x484848, 0x494949, 0x4A4A4A, 0x4B4B4B,
  0x4C4C4C, 0x4D4D4D, 0x4E4E4E, 0x4F4F4F,
  0x505050, 0x515151, 0x525252, 0x535353,
  0x545454, 0x555555, 0x565656, 0x575757,
  0x585858, 0x595959, 0x5A5A5A, 0x5B5B5B,
  0x5C5C5C, 0x5D5D5D, 0x5E5E5E, 0x5F5F5F,
  0x606060, 0x616161, 0x626262, 0x636363,
  0x646464, 0x656565, 0x666666, 0x676767,
  0x686868, 0x696969, 0x6A6A6A, 0x6B6B6B,
  0x6C6C6C, 0x6D6D6D, 0x6E6E6E, 0x6F6F6F,
  0x707070, 0x717171, 0x727272, 0x737373,
  0x747474, 0x757575, 0x767676, 0x777777,
  0x787878, 0x797979, 0x7A7A7A, 0x7B7B7B,
  0x7C7C7C, 0x7D7D7D, 0x7E7E7E, 0x7F7F7F,
  0x808080, 0x818181, 0x828282, 0x838383,
  0x848484, 0x858585, 0x868686, 0x878787,
  0x888888, 0x898989, 0x8A8A8A, 0x8B8B8B,
  0x8C8C8C, 0x8D8D8D, 0x8E8E8E, 0x8F8F8F,
  0x909090, 0x919191, 0x929292, 0x939393,
  0x949494, 0x959595, 0x969696, 0x979797,
  0x989898, 0x999999, 0x9A9A9A, 0x9B9B9B,
  0x9C9C9C, 0x9D9D9D, 0x9E9E9E, 0x9F9F9F,
  0xA0A0A0, 0xA1A1A1, 0xA2A2A2, 0xA3A3A3,
  0xA4A4A4, 0xA5A5A5, 0xA6A6A6, 0xA7A7A7,
  0xA8A8A8, 0xA9A9A9, 0xAAAAAA, 0xABABAB,
  0xACACAC, 0xADADAD, 0xAEAEAE, 0xAFAFAF,
  0xB0B0B0, 0xB1B1B1, 0xB2B2B2, 0xB3B3B3,
  0xB4B4B4, 0xB5B5B5, 0xB6B6B6, 0xB7B7B7,
  0xB8B8B8, 0xB9B9B9, 0xBABABA, 0xBBBBBB,
  0xBCBCBC, 0xBDBDBD, 0xBEBEBE, 0xBFBFBF,
  0xC0C0C0, 0xC1C1C1, 0xC2C2C2, 0xC3C3C3,
  0xC4C4C4, 0xC5C5C5, 0xC6C6C6, 0xC7C7C7,
  0xC8C8C8, 0xC9C9C9, 0xCACACA, 0xCBCBCB,
  0xCCCCCC, 0xCDCDCD, 0xCECECE, 0xCFCFCF,
  0xD0D0D0, 0xD1D1D1, 0xD2D2D2, 0xD3D3D3,
  0xD4D4D4, 0xD5D5D5, 0xD6D6D6, 0xD7D7D7,
  0xD8D8D8, 0xD9D9D9, 0xDADADA, 0xDBDBDB,
  0xDCDCDC, 0xDDDDDD, 0xDEDEDE, 0xDFDFDF,
  0xE0E0E0, 0xE1E1E1, 0xE2E2E2, 0xE3E3E3,
  0xE4E4E4, 0xE5E5E5, 0xE6E6E6, 0xE7E7E7,
  0xE8E8E8, 0xE9E9E9, 0xEAEAEA, 0xEBEBEB,
  0xECECEC, 0xEDEDED, 0xEEEEEE, 0xEFEFEF,
  0xF0F0F0, 0xF1F1F1, 0xF2F2F2, 0xF3F3F3,
  0xF4F4F4, 0xF5F5F5, 0xF6F6F6, 0xF7F7F7,
  0xF8F8F8, 0xF9F9F9, 0xFAFAFA, 0xFBFBFB,
  0xFCFCFC, 0xFDFDFD, 0xFEFEFE, 0xFFFFFF
};
 
static GUI_CONST_STORAGE GUI_LOGPALETTE _Palzoo_800_600 = {
  256,  // Number of entries
  0,    // No transparency
  &_Colorszoo_800_600[0]
};
 
GUI_CONST_STORAGE GUI_BITMAP bmzoo_800_600 = {
  800, // xSize
  600, // ySize
  800, // BytesPerLine
  8, // BitsPerPixel
  _aczoo_800_600,  // Pointer to picture data (indices)
  &_Palzoo_800_600   // Pointer to palette
};
  • Modify codes
static GUI_CONST_STORAGE unsigned char _aczoo_800_600[] = {
to (you can rename the array)
const unsigned char zoo_800_600[] = {
  • Modify IT8951.c file, for example:
extern const unsigned char zoo_800_600[];
void IT8951DisplayExample3()
{
	IT8951LdImgInfo stLdImgInfo;
	IT8951AreaImgInfo stAreaImgInfo;
	TWord width = gstI80DevInfo.usPanelW;
	TWord high = gstI80DevInfo.usPanelH;
	TDWord i;
 
	for (i = 0;i < width*high;i++)
	{
		gpFrameBuf[i] = zoo_800_600[i];
	}
 
	IT8951WaitForDisplayReady();
 
	//Setting Load image information
	stLdImgInfo.ulStartFBAddr    = (TDWord)gpFrameBuf;
	stLdImgInfo.usEndianType     = IT8951_LDIMG_L_ENDIAN;
	stLdImgInfo.usPixelFormat    = IT8951_8BPP; 
	stLdImgInfo.usRotate         = IT8951_ROTATE_0;
	stLdImgInfo.ulImgBufBaseAddr = gulImgBufAddr;
	//Set Load Area
	stAreaImgInfo.usX      = 0;
	stAreaImgInfo.usY      = 0;
	stAreaImgInfo.usWidth  = width;
	stAreaImgInfo.usHeight = high;
 
	IT8951HostAreaPackedPixelWrite(&stLdImgInfo, &stAreaImgInfo);//Display function 2
	IT8951DisplayArea(0,0, gstI80DevInfo.usPanelW, gstI80DevInfo.usPanelH, 2);
}

Note

Connection

Because of updating, the hardware connection of e-Paper may difference as the picture showed, please connect the e-Paper according to the screen silk printing.

  • Example 1
20191213143317.png
  • Example 2
20191213141630.png

DIP switch

  • We recommend you to use USB, I80 and SPI interfaces
  • Whether you use USB, SPI or I80 interface, you should turn the switch to ON as below
20191213160132.png
  • If E-LINK software didn't recognize the e-Paper when you use USB interface, please check if the pins marked in red are accessible.

Codes description

  • DisplayColorPaletteExample
    • This function is used to display 16 gray bars in order
    • This function use 4bp mode and GC16 mode, partial refresh
  • DisplayCharacterPatternExample
    • This is function is used to draw points, lines, circles, rectangles, and characters. 1bpp method is used with A2 mode.
  • DisplayBMPExample
    • This function is used to display BMP picture
  • DynamicRefreshExample
    • This function is used for A2 mode
    • This function show you how to update e-Paper in A2 mode. With this demo, e-Paper is updated several times and cleared in INIT mode to clear ghosts.
  • DynamicGIFExample
    • This function is used to display GIF image.
    • The GIF image are divided into seven BMP image and saved to buffer of IT8951. e-Paper will read the BMP files in order and update. Because the images are saved to IT8951 directly, the updated rate, in this case, is the maximum one that the e-paper could reach.
  • CheckFrameRateExample
    • This function is used to test the update rate of different modes.

About the modes

Mode Features 6inch/6inch HD!7.8inch/9.7inch/10.3inch
INIT Used to clear screen. please use it to clear screen after A2 mode Mode0 Mode0
GC16 It is used it update screen for 16 grayscale display Mode2 Mode2
A2 Can only supports Black and White color Mode4 Mode6
//basic mode definition
UBYTE INIT_Mode = 0;
UBYTE GC16_Mode = 2;
//A2_Mode's value is not fixed, is decide by firmware's LUT 
UBYTE A2_Mode = 6;
if( strcmp(LUT_Version, "M641") == 0 ){
    //6inch e-Paper HAT(800,600), 6inch HD e-Paper HAT(1448,1072), 6inch HD touch e-Paper HAT(1448,1072)
    A2_Mode = 4;
    Four_Byte_Align = true;
}else if( strcmp(LUT_Version, "M841") == 0 ){
    //9.7inch e-Paper HAT(1200,825)
    A2_Mode = 6;
}else if( strcmp(LUT_Version, "M841_TFA2812") == 0 ){
    //7.8inch e-Paper HAT(1872,1404)
    A2_Mode = 6;
}else if( strcmp(LUT_Version, "M841_TFA5210") == 0 ){
    //10.3inch e-Paper HAT(1872,1404)
    A2_Mode = 6;
}else{
    //default set to 6 as A2 Mode
    A2_Mode = 6;
}

About bpp

bpp is Bits per pixel, it is the data that show the number of bits per pixel. Currently, all the gray e-Paper supports 1bpp, 2bpp, 4bpp and 8bpp.

  • 1bpp
    • Evey pixel use 1 bit
    • It supports 2 (2^1=2) gray, it is used for A2 mode
    • Evey byte contains 8 pixels
    • Save in RAM in big-endian format
    • IT8951 use little-endian format by default, you should convert it when using.
20191219164855.png
  • 2bpp
    • Every pixel use 2 bits
    • Support 4(2^2=4) grays
    • Every byte contains 4 pixels
    • Save in RAM in big-endian format
    • IT8951 use little-endian format by default, you should convert it when using.

20191219164916.png

  • 4bpp
    • Every pixel use 4 bits
    • Support 16(2^4=16) grays
    • Every byte contains 2 pixels
    • Save in RAM in big-endian format
    • IT8951 use little-endian format by default, you should convert it when using.

20191219164949.png

  • 8bpp
    • Every pixel use 8 bits
    • Support 256(2^8=256) grays, however, IT8951 only use the high four bits, only support 16 grays.
    • Every byte contains 1 pixels
    • Save in RAM in big-endian format
    • IT8951 use little-endian format by default, you should convert it when using.

20191219165020.png

Every pixel of the original image contains 8bits (1 byte). To convert it to BMP, you can only get the hight bits. For example, if you want to get pixels for 2bpp, you can just get the hight 2 bits from 8bpp(8bits) image.

UDOUBLE Addr = X * (Paint.BitsPerPixel) / 8 + Y * Paint.WidthByte;
switch( Paint.BitsPerPixel ){
    case 8:{
        Paint.Image[Addr] = Color & 0xF0;
        break;
    }
    case 4:{
        Paint.Image[Addr] &= ~( (0xF0) >> (7 - (X*4+3)%8 ) );
        Paint.Image[Addr] |= (Color & 0xF0) >> (7 - (X*4+3)%8 );
        break;
    }
    case 2:{
        Paint.Image[Addr] &= ~( (0xC0) >> (7 - (X*2+1)%8 ) );
        Paint.Image[Addr] |= (Color & 0xC0) >> (7 - (X*2+1)%8 );
        break;
    }
    case 1:{
        Paint.Image[Addr] &= ~( (0x80) >> (7 - X%8) );
        Paint.Image[Addr] |= (Color & 0x80) >> (7 - X%8);
        break;
    }
}

Align bytes

During test, we find that when we use 1bpp mode to update the 6inch e-Paper, 6inch HD e-Paper, we should align the X (begin point) and W (width) of udpate area to four bytes (32bits), otherwse, the image cannot be displayed.

if( strcmp(LUT_Version, "M641") == 0 ){
    //6inch e-Paper HAT(800,600), 6inch HD e-Paper HAT(1448,1072), 6inch HD touch e-Paper HAT(1448,1072)
    A2_Mode = 4;
    Four_Byte_Align = true;
}else if( strcmp(LUT_Version, "M841") == 0 ){
...
}
if(Four_Byte_Align == true){
    In_4bp_Refresh_Area_Width = Panel_Width - (Panel_Width % 32);
}else{
    In_4bp_Refresh_Area_Width = Panel_Width;
}
X_Start = Min_X < 32 ? 0 : Min_X - (Min_X % 32);
Debug("X_Start:%d\r\n",X_Start);
X_End = ( Max_X + (32 - (Max_X % 32)) ) > Touch_Pannel_Area_Width ? ( Max_X - (Max_X % 32) )  : ( Max_X + (32 - (Max_X % 32)) );
Debug("X_End:%d\r\n",X_End);
Y_Start = Min_Y;
Debug("Y_Start:%d\r\n",Y_Start);
Y_End = Max_Y;
Debug("Y_Start:%d\r\n",Y_End);
Width = X_End - X_Start;
if(Width<=0){
    Width = 32;
}
Debug("Width:%d\r\n",Width);
Height = Y_End-Y_Start;
if(Height<=0){
    Height = 32;
}
Debug("Height:%d\r\n",Height);

About the speed of SPI

The CPU of Raspberry Pi 3 is different with Raspberry Pi 4

  • For Raspberry Pi, it could use maximum 16 clock divider
  • For Raspberry Pi, it could use maximum 32 clock divider
  • You can refer to the description of BCM2835 libraries about the clock divider
20191219173204.png
  • You can modify the clock divider according to the board you use
bcm2835_spi_begin();//Start spi interface, set spi pin for the reuse function
bcm2835_spi_setBitOrder(BCM2835_SPI_BIT_ORDER_MSBFIRST);//High first transmission
bcm2835_spi_setDataMode(BCM2835_SPI_MODE0);//spi mode 0
 
//bcm2835_spi_setClockDivider(BCM2835_SPI_CLOCK_DIVIDER_16);//For RPi 3/3B/3B+
bcm2835_spi_setClockDivider(BCM2835_SPI_CLOCK_DIVIDER_32);//For RPi 4B
 
/* SPI clock reference link:*/
/*http://www.airspayce.com/mikem/bcm2835/group__constants.html#gaf2e0ca069b8caef24602a02e8a00884e*/

Enhance driving capability

Sometimes, the e-Paper display abnormally because of long FPC cable, in this case, you can try to enhance the driving capability

#if(Enhance)
    Debug("Attention! Enhanced driving ability, only used when the screen is blurred\r\n");
    Enhance_Driving_Capability();
#endif
/******************************************************************************
function :  Enhanced driving capability
parameter:  Enhanced driving capability for IT8951, in case the blurred display effect
******************************************************************************/
void Enhance_Driving_Capability(void)
{
    UWORD RegValue = EPD_IT8951_ReadReg(0x0038);
    Debug("The reg value before writing is %x\r\n", RegValue);
    EPD_IT8951_WriteReg(0x0038, 0x0602);
    RegValue = EPD_IT8951_ReadReg(0x0038);
    Debug("The reg value after writing is %x\r\n", RegValue);
}
  • If you are using the USB interafce with PC, you can try to configure:
  • Read the data of 0x18000038 register
6inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-11.png
  • Modify the data to 602
6inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-12.png
  • Check the data
6inch-e-Paper-HAT-Manual-13.png

About VCOM

The VCOM voltages of every e-Paper panel are different and they are printed on FPC cable. Please make sure that you use the correct VCOM.

Resources

Schematic

Demo code

Datasheet

Software

Other documents

Supports

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